Monday, January 20, 2020

Frankenstein- Can Comfort Be F :: essays research papers

In the Romantic period of literature, nature was often associated with isolation in a positive way. Throughout the novel, Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley, there is a strong symbolic relationship between loneliness and nature. However, Shelley uses the relationship to show the negativity of being alone. The relationship of nature and loneliness is displayed through three characters in the story: Victor Frankenstein, his creature, and Robert Walton. At the times when the characters are alone and in need of companionship, they feel depressed, confused, and angry; they do not think clearly, and, consequently, they make wrong decisions. They seek refuge in nature, and try to use its beauty to find answers and to fill their void of friendship. Yet, none of the characters ever overcomes their bouts with loneliness because they never find true comfort in nature. Victor Frankenstein claims, “No human being could have passed a happier childhood than myself'; (Shelley, 19). His early life was filled with love and nurturing from his parents, his beautiful and adored companion Elizabeth, and his best friend Henry Clerval. However, after he leaves his home to continue his education at Ingolstadt, he remarks, “I, who had ever been surrounded by amiable companions, continually engaged in endeavoring to bestow mutual pleasure, I was now alone'; (Shelley, 25). Frankenstein no longer feels all the happiness he once felt when he was united with his family and friends. He alienates himself from others because he thinks he is “totally unfitted for the company of strangers'; (Shelley, 25). When Frankenstein is at Ingolstadt, he “has a void of the soul'; so profound that he subverts Nature to fill it (qtd. in Renfroe, 2). He conceives, “A new species would bless me as its creator and source; many happy and excellent natures would owe their being to me'; (Shelley, 32). Frankenstein decides to make a creature, to defy the powers of Nature and God -- a poor decision that ruins the rest of his life. When Victor finally succeeds in his quest to possess Nature, “horror and disgust'; fill his heart upon viewing his new creation (qtd. in Renfroe, 2). He sought companionship by capturing Nature and creating someone to honor him for giving them life; but it backfired and he sealed his fate to the wrath of his creature. When Victor Frankenstein is again separated from his beloved family and friends, this time by their deaths, he feels the pains of isolation.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Look at the Way Shakespeare Explores Relationships Between Men and Women in Measure for Measure Essay

When Shakespeare wrote Measure for Measure in approximately 1604, society was very sexist towards females and men were seen as the stronger sex, however Shakespeare included lots of strong female characters in his plays such as Portia in ‘Mercent of Venice’ and Lady Macbeth in ‘Macbeth’, he was aware that his plays wouldn’t change society and that unlimitedly, women are regarded as subservient to men. They were not allowed to vote, state their real opinions, go to university and they were never formally educated; their only expected roles in life were to run the household and provide children. Consequently, many men regarded their wives and daughters as possessions who were expected to abide by their husbands and fathers no matter what. When it came down to relationships with the opposite sex, virginity was regarded as a virtue and a prize. Men expected their wives to be pure in preparation for marriage and the women that had ‘succumbed to the pleasures of the flesh’ before they were married were considered ruined women. Men however were encouraged to learn the arts of seduction and some men of the higher class were sent to Italy to learn the art. In the society of Measure for Measure, men clearly use and abuse women. One of the main characters Angelo is placed in charge of the city in Vienna by Duke Vincentio. The Duke had been quite an easy going ruler who feels that it is time to clean up the Viennese society and administer a greater sense of honour. He chooses Angelo because of the strong characteristics and principles that he has make him stand out for being the perfect person to do so. Despite his name being a play on the word ‘angel’, he absurdly proves to be the villain of the play and along with several other male figures, he uses not only his gender but also his position of power, to exploit several members of the ‘weaker’ sex. When Angelo takes authority as ruler in the Duke’s absence he immediately wishes to make a mark. Unbeknown to him, the Duke has disguised himself as a Friar and has returned to Vienna to observe how Angelo administers ascendancy. Angelo initially comes forth as beyond criticism and determined to rule with an iron fist. When he discovers that a nobleman called Claudio has slept with his partner impregnated her, he orders Claudio be executed as an example to the citizens of Vienna, that such immorality will not be tolerated. The nobleman Claudio is introduced to us in Act 1 Scene 2. As he is being led away to prison, his friend Lucio asks the meaning of ‘this restraint’ and queries as to weather or not it is because of ‘lechery’. Claudio agrees that to a degree, his crime is one of being too lenient in terms of sexual activity and we recognize that this is a society where men and women are expected to show self-control before marriage. Claudio talks about his lover, Julietta with a certain degree of dominance; we learn he had ‘possession’ of her bed but in his justification it was ‘upon a true contract’ and it seemed the liaison was consensual. But also ‘upon a true contract’ could also mean that Julietta has donated herself to the dominant member of the relationship. Also this statement makes the ‘relationship’ appear to be almost a deal or an agreement – in which has been made between the two characters. He also argues that they were as good as engaged but were waiting for the right moment to reveal the news to her family. Their sexual relationship is regarded by Claudio as ‘mutual entertainment’ and we realise that both can be held responsible for their crime however Julietta is now pregnant and they cannot hide their actions from others who can see the ‘shame’ of their union. In addition, the word mainly focused upon, is ‘possession’. This word once again reflects the sexism surrounding this era; in that the male is the dominant and most significant person. Therefore, it is clear that the women (being Julietta in this case) is almost an in-animate object, which is owned or ‘possessed’ by the man. Claudio’s sister, Isabella, is an aspiring nun and when she first heard about her brother’s arrest she snaps at Angelo with ‘make me not your story’. She honestly doesn’t believe that her brother has committed such sin and thinks it is all a story. When she comes to plead for her brother’s life, she is clearly virtuous and innocent; untainted by the ills of society and ready to offer up her life to God. Angelo is overtaken by his desires and attracted to her virtuous nature. He offers the proposition that Isabella ‘yield up’ her body to his ‘will’ and he in turn will grant a pardon for Claudio. The word ‘yield’ suggests Isabella should give in or cower before Angelo’s might as a man and as a ruler. It reflects how Elizabethan men thought of women as possessions, objects and caring about only their bodies and not their souls; that when it came to sex before marriage, women were meant to give up their bodies. Isabella is horrified and refuses, believing that by sacrificing her virginity, she sacrifices her soul. The word ‘will’ shows that Angelo dominates and expects to be obeyed in the ‘relationship’, despite her opinions or rights. As a man in a superior position, Angelo is used to being obeyed and his demands are to be met. This shows us that men treated women as objects to satisfy their needs. In light of how sexist this play has been, at the end of the play in scene 5 I become almost convinced of how vile the Duke is. He tries to portray himself as this great big hero when he helps Isabella save Claudio; but then injustices that by punishing Lucio so harshly. Prostitutes in those days were thought of as strumpets and marriage with such a person was a ‘sin’. So, Lucio is given an option to marry the whore he impregnated but he never has to repent for what he did. Actions like this in the Viennese society were highly frowned upon and this highlights even more how badly men thought about women in these situations because Lucio was devastated when the Duke told him his sentence. Isabella, originally on the verge of becoming a nun, finds herself about to marry the Duke. It is interesting that she is not given a chance to reply to the Duke’s marriage proposal in the play. She is assumedly very content to become the spouse of the town’s leader, mainly since he has saved her brother’s life. But at the same time this situation reinforces her loss of sexual independence. The central conflict in the play revolves roughly around Isabella’s rejection to follow the ways of the majority of the women in Vienna. Her marriage to the Duke confirms her virtue while denying her independence. There are no independent women in Measure for Measure. This is not strange, considering the setting and Shakespeare’s own era. But Measure for Measure gives its women characters even less freedom than other Shakespearean plays. Isabella is the one exception in that she refuses to respond to Angelo’s advances. However, she is still obedient toward the Duke, following all of his instructions. At the conclusion of the play, the Duke administers punishment to all of the people who have done wrong and rewards the good. Angelo is told to marry Mariana, and he escapes death at her request. The Duke probably does not want to execute Angelo, but wants it made clear that his crime deserves such a punishment. Mariana’s reward is Angelo, which she takes happily, although the Duke tells her that he is unworthy of her love. Claudio is allowed to marry Juliet, and Lucio is punished by being made to marry a prostitute. Marriage is not a specific punishment or reward; however in this situation it is definitely a punishment.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Theory Of Social Science - 936 Words

Luckily for the individual, other theoretical traditions disagree with this idea that it is the society or market that gives human existence meaning but instead the individual’s being and actions that form the basis for understanding society. To these existentialists, individuals are not merely products of structure as many theorists before determined; each person is made with his or her own thoughts, emotions, and distinguishing experiences that embody that individual’s ability to shape social life and the existing world. There is a more fundamental basis to understanding social science than accepting a macro-social order of human nature as the disconnect of social sciences previous to the rise of existentialism reduces these personal experiences. How a person understands and recognizes the world does not fall passively to norms or values as a structural functionalist would believe nor the surrounding economic system as Marxists recognized. Instead, it is the continual interaction in a social environment that causes the agent to actively evaluate and execute his or her own response. By taking on the assumption that each person has the ability to exert agency over his or her own life, theorists applied this knowledge as a method to call people to action. If individuals are not simply cogs in a social system incapable of making decisions free of outside influence, then each now has an acute responsibility, a personal freedom from stagnation. No longer bound by absolutes yetShow MoreRelatedApplying Social Science Theories in Research679 Words   |  3 PagesTheories in the social sciences are usually created like theories in the hard sciences first by observation and empirical testing and then by drawing educated conclusions. After a series of empirical tests have been conducted and a sufficient body of research has been gathered, it may be possible to devise a theory based on the research. 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Donald Moon and Fritz Machlup are just a few individuals who have primarily discussed the distinction between natural and social sciences. These discussions led to the question ofRead MoreScience Throughout the Ages912 Words   |  4 PagesThe term Science comes from the Latin word scientia, meaning knowledge. The definition of science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in t he form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. An older term of science refers to a body of knowledge itself, of anything that can be successfully applied to a situation. Someone who practices science is known as a scientist. Modern science has been traced back to the early modern period and in particular to theRead MoreScientific Method and Sir Karl Popper1407 Words   |  6 Pagesponder on the meaning of science, the methods to find truth, is one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century. Of particular importance to scientific methods of inquiry is the brawl between the development of theory and the criteria for science. In Popper’s own words, it is in this brawl that Popper decided to â€Å"grapple with the problem: When should a theory be ranked as scientific? or Is there a criterion for the scientific character or status of a theory?† (Popper 1957), p. 1). Read MoreEmile Durkheim: the Division of Labor1152 Words   |  5 P agessociology as a science. He believed that every social structure existed only because it satisfied a specific social need. Additionally, it was Durkheim’s desire to delineate how sociology would be used and considered and to give it the tools of scientific methodology (Vissing, 2011). To integrate the tools of science with the theory of functionalism Durkheim examined how social structures integrated with social living. It was not until after Durkheim examined the interactions within the social structures

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Affirmative Action Curbed in California Essay Example For Students

Affirmative Action Curbed in California Essay By William ClaiborneWashington Post Staff WriterFriday, June 2, 1995; Page A01LOS ANGELES, JUNE 1 California Gov. Pete Wilson (R), vowing to lead a growing conservative movement to end three decades of racial and gender preferences as an antidote to discrimination, today signed an executive order abolishing a wide range of affirmative action programs affecting hiring and contracting in state agencies. Wilson, who is seeking the Republican presidential nomination, eliminated or sharply cut back scores of affirmative action policies or programs that are not mandated by state or federal laws or that exceed those laws. He also abolished 118 boards and commissions created to advise state agencies on ethnic and gender diversity issues. Although he has no direct authority to order policy changes for public schools, colleges and universities, Wilson told his appointees on state educational governing boards that he wants them to dismantle race and gender preference programs that are not required by law. As mayor of San Diego in the 1970s, Wilson championed affirmative action, adopting a plan to increase the hiring of minority workers and requiring major city contractors to adopt similar programs. But opposition to affirmative action has become a common theme of the Republican presidential candidates and many Republicans in Congress. Flanked today by a group of Forestry Department firefighters from various minorities, who the governors aides said symbolize Californians who resent a public perception that they were hired on the basis of preferential treatment, Wilson said affirmative action is not only unfair, it stigmatizes the achievements of those it was intended to help. His order repeals affirmative action orders signed by three previous governors, including Republicans Ronald Reagan and George Deukmejian. In a statement released earlier, Wilson said great societal guilt had stimulated the creation of affirmative action programs in the 1960s and would undermine the very foundation of the American dream if hiring and contract programs based on race and gender preference were not rolled back. Wilson blamed the misfired good intentions of leaders dating back to John F. Kennedy for programs he said unfairly discriminated against certain ethnic groups to compensate others for past injustices. The Republican governor said he would aggressively pursue further cutbacks in preferential treatment for minorities and women in order to assure a new era of meritocracy. This executive order is an historic step forward. By itself, it doesnt complete the change we must make. Special preferences remain embedded in state and federal law. I vow to fight for changes in those laws, Wilson said. Sean Walsh, the governors press secretary, said Wilson is the first governor to roll back affirmative action programs. He said the order would affect all of the states approximately 150,000 full-time job positions. According to the California State Employees Association, about 60 percent of the state government work force is white, 16 percent Hispanic, 12 percent black, 6 percent are Asian and the remaining 6 percent from other groups. Wilsons action appeared designed to capitalize on public dissatisfaction with minority preference programs and on a backlash against what is characterized as reverse discrimination, while at the same time setting him apart from the eight other contenders for the GOP presidential nomination, none of whom are sitting governors. It comes a day after senior White House officials said President Clinton is still weeks or even months away from completing a review he has ordered of federal affirmative action programs. Wilson already had announced his support of a proposed 1996 state ballot initiative that would go further than todays order by abolishing affirmative action in all state hiring, contracting and university admissions practices. At least six other states Washington, Florida, Illinois, Oregon, Colorado and Nevada have similar ballot initiative campaigns in the works. Critics accused Wilson of flip-flopping on the issue in hopes of helping a presidential campaign that has been hampered by his slow recovery from his throat operation his remarks today were read out by a member of his cabinet and a sluggish fund-raising effort. He wants to be the voice of the angry white males, said Ramona Ripston, executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California. .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 , .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .postImageUrl , .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 , .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075:hover , .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075:visited , .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075:active { border:0!important; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075:active , .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075 .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4c7cd096bc62450cac6e934d25c6d075:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Hippopotamus: Endangered Species Report Essay She noted that Wilsons come-from-behind reelection last year was boosted by his vociferous support for Proposition 187, the ballot initiative aimed at cutting off social services for illegal immigrants, another popular backlash measure. The Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, in a statement, called Wilsons order a desperate effort to recover his bid for the presidency by further polarizing Californians. MALDEF said Wilsons action was as noble as previous governors attempts to keep African Americans out of public schools in the South. Affirmative action orders signed by three previous governors Deukmejian, Edmund G. Jerry Brown Jr. (D) and Reagan were repealed by Wilson, who said they had encouraged the gradual development of racial and gender-based preferences and set asides. Among the agencies affected by Wilsons order is the state transportation department, Caltrans, which is required by agreement with the federal government to allocate 20 percent of its contracting funds to minority-owned firms. Wilson ordered Caltrans to negotiate a new agreement lowering that goal to 10 percent. He also ordered Caltrans to abolish an informal policy of awarding small purchase contracts of $500 or less to women or minority-owned firms and to make such decisions based on non-preferential competitive pricing. The governor ordered the Department of Forestry, which has a 50 percent goal for the hiring of women and minorities as seasonal firefighters, to eliminate that program and hire on the basis of merit. He eliminated a requirement that the racial and gender ratio on job interview panels for civil service and career executive positions mirror that of the population as a whole, and directed the Department of Water Resources to end its practice of setting aside two-thirds of all student intern openings for minority candidates. Words/ Pages : 980 / 24

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Modern Prometheus free essay sample

A modern day Prometheus is somebody that defies the Gods and does something that only they can do. Victor Frankenstein, from Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, is considered to be a modern day Prometheus at that time. Prometheus, a Titan, was the first person that started this modern day Prometheus. Mary Shelley tried to make Prometheus and Dr. Frankenstein to be very similar of what their actions. Prometheus was the son of Iapetus. His name meant forethought because he ad the power to tell the future so therefore, he was the wisest of all the Titans. Prometheus was also a friend to Zeus because he helped Zeus fight and defeat Cronus even though most of the Titans were with Cronus. Prometheus and his brother Epimetheus were told to create man. Because Prometheus helped make man, he cared for them. He was known as the protector and benifactor of man. The wise Titan would gift man something that the Gods of Mt. We will write a custom essay sample on The Modern Prometheus or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Olympus tended to keep for themselves only: fire. The Gods were very furious about how Prometheus stole fire from the Gods. He was given a cruel punishment. He was hained to a rock with an eagle tearing at his liver. Zeus tended for Prometheus to be left on the rock for all of eternity or until he agreed to disclose to Zeus which of Zeuss children would try to replace his position. In the end, Hercules ends up rescuing Prometheus and he did not even give in to Zeus. This is how being a Prometheus began. These kinds of people defy the Gods, yet they are always punished for doing that. Prometheus stole fire and gave to man, but as punishment, his liver was being ripped off every day by an eagle. Victor Frankenstein did something that most people thought only Gods can do: create life. He made life, a thing only Gods can do. Victor hoped that when he created his son, he would love the creature dearly. Instead, as punishment for defying the Gods, Victor was filled with hatred and disgust of the monster. Because Victor created life and did something that only Gods can do, Mary Shelley subtitled Frankenstein The Modern Prometheus. Mary Shelleys purpose in the subtitle of her book, Frankenstein was to compare the two people: Prometheus and Victor Frankenstein. She showed many similarities between Victor and the Titan. She had many solid reasoning that Frankenstein is in a lot of ways the modern Prometheus at that time. Dr. Frankenstein and Prometheus both made a problem that neither characters were able to control. This teaches the two people to never mess with the laws of nature. It took punishments and time for both characters to realize what they had done was seriously wrong. People that do something that most people consider only gods to do are known as a Prometheus. Victor from Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus is considered to be a person that defied the gods. The tirst person to ever be a Prometheus was a Titan that had a name of Prometheus. Mary Shelley intended for Victor to be that and she succeeded for what was to be achieved.